The total share of state sector in GDP can be decomposed into three main factors: SOEs’ share, SUEs’ share and share of public administration sector.
A SOE is an organization controlled by the state, which holds directly or indirectly a majority or a significant minority block of shares amounting to not less than 10 percent. This definition complies with the OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-owned Enterprises. Our sample consists of 350 largest private and state-owned companies, 162 of which are SOEs, in 2006-2021, and 55 SOEs in 2000-2005.
SOEs’ share in GDP is estimated based on income and add-on multiplier. The add-on multiplier was estimated using Eurostat methodology on estimating company’s share in GDP for two largest non-financial companies in Russia – Gazprom and Rosneft – in 2006-2021. The add-on multiplier equals the mean of share of these companies in GDP divided by their share in total income of the sample and equals approximately 2,2. This estimate is a conservative option and provides a lower limit for SOEs’ share
SUEs’ share is estimated based on data from SPARK agency about SUE’s income and on the same add-on multiplier as the one for SOEs’.
Share of public administration
The share of public administration was estimated was on product account that includes the value added by this sector and is based on income method which complies with international standards. We adjusted this measure for value added which includes wages, profits and similar sources and is for fitted for comparing with GDP.